Reconstruction Of The Gulf Oasis From The Late Pleistocene To Early Neolithic Time Periods
According to Dr. Jeffrey Rose, there were three zones of human occupation below the Persian Sea. He stated in his paper titled, “New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis”, that below the Persian Sea in what he refers to as the Gulf Oasis was, “ground zero to the Agricultural and Urban revolutions”(1) of the human race. He stated, “The Gulf Oasis model envisages that the wave of Middle Holocene settlements derive from an indigenous population displaced by the advancing shoreline. From that perspective, Terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene sites around the Gulf represent but the more mobile, peripheral elements of a larger core group deep within the basin, as the gulf oasis had one of the largest and most stable sources of freshwater in southwest Asia for the majority of the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene time periods."(2)
The astounding thing is Dr. Rose was not alone in this idea, V. Gordon Childe, a man widely regarded as one of the most important archaeologists and prehistorians of his generation, had also come to the same conclusion years before.(V. Gordon Childe. 1928)Another archaeologist whose conclusions mirrored that of Dr. Rose and Dr. Childe was Dr. Theresa Howard-Carter, a distinguished scholar of the ancient near east. In her 1981 article in the Journal of Cuneiform Studies titled, "The Tangible Evidence for the Earliest Dilmun," she stated, "the gulf was an entirely dry basin about 15,000 BC. The Tigris and the Euphrates carved their course separately and together to the Straits of Hormuz, where they debouched directly into the gulf of Oman. It is more than likely that the original gulf oasis inhabitants lived along the banks of the lower or extended Shatt-al-Arab, ranging some 800 km across the dry gulf bed. We can thus postulate that the pre-Sumerian cultures had more than ample time to be born and flourish in this ravine setting, encouraged by the agricultural potential, and the blessings of a temperate climate. The fact that the body of proof for the existence of these societies must now lie at the bottom of the gulf furnishes at least a temporary excuse for the archaeologist's failure to produce evidence of this culture. For the next 6000 years, between 14,000 to 8000 BC, the gulf gradually filled from the Indian Ocean in the south. During this period the land formation of the west side of the gulf remained constant and the climate continued to be temperate, but due to the persistent oceanic instability of the Iranian side, the eastern littoral was a far less inviting habitat. The populations retreating from the flooded lower Shatt-al-Arab were therefore forced to higher ground in the western and northern part of the gulf.”(3)
The fact that so many archaeologists proposed the same location for ancient settlements to have existed under the Persian Sea held my attention. It seemed to line up with what Dr. Spencer Wells, a well known geneticist, had stated as a possible route our ancient ancestors that belonged to the haplogroups M130 and M174 of the male line, as well as the M haplogroup of the female line took as they ventured out of Africa and crossed as they journeyed towards India about 50 - 60,000 years ago.(Spencer Wells - 2004).
Such a crossing was only possible due to the fact that the ocean did not exist in what is now the Persian Gulf. This statement is corroborated by Dr. Douglas Martinson’s research paper titled, “Age Dating and Orbital Theory of the Ice Ages,” in which he has shown that the ocean level was approximately 85-90 meters below present levels due to the ice age the world found itself in.(Douglas G. Martinson. 1987) If these scientists and scholars are correct and our ancient ancestors did populate this gulf oasis, then what did it look like? Unfortunately, there is very little visual data showing what the Gulf Oasis would have looked like. The bathymetric maps of this location that are available to non-military personnel like myself are poor and thus it is difficult to visualize a truly detailed view of this lost world.
So as crazy as this sounds, in order to see this lost world, I created my own map.
Using the “Path” tool in combination with the elevation tool that Google Earth provides, I was able to painstakingly recreate the Google Earth data that the program reproduced for me and create a highly detailed bathymetric map of the eastern side of the gulf oasis in as little as 1 meter increments. As far as I am aware, the map I produced is the first of its kind which finally reveals the landscape our ancient ancestors called home.
Figure 1: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -85 meters below current sea levels, circa 50,000 BCE.(Dold. 2016, Douglas G. Martinson. 1987)
As a professional artist, I was not satisfied with having created a map full of lines, I wanted others to be able to “see” what I could see, so in order to do so, I took pieces of satellite imagery from around the world and stitched them together, merging them with the map I had created, to produce an artistic representation of the topography of this lost world.
To orient figure 1 geographically, the brown region in the lower right hand corner is the Al Hajar mountain range found in Oman; the lighter blue area in the upper right hand corner is the ocean; and the darker blue areas found throughout the map are lakes and river systems.
It seems Dr. Jeffrey Rose was correct when he tells us, “Given the extent of the exposed land within the Gulf basin, the abundance of food, water, lithic raw material, and its conscripted geographic position, this sizable inland depression is thought to have formed one of the most important oases in the ancient world. Situated along the eastern edge of the peninsula, the Arabo-Persian Gulf is among the shallowest seas in the world, with average depths of just 40 m. When global sea levels dropped below this mark at the onset of MIS4, more than 100,000 km of land were continuously exposed for the ensuing 70,000 years. During that interval, the basin housed a rich mosaic of freshwater springs, river floodplains, mangrove swamps, marshes and estuaries (Al-Hinai, Moore, and Bush 1987; Alsharhan and Kendall 2003; Butler 1969; Diester-Haass 1973; Evans 1966; Georgiev and Stoffers 1980; Gischler et al.2005; Lambeck 1996; Saleh et al.1999; Sarnthein 1972; Seibold and Vollbrecht 1969; Stoffers and Ross 1979; Sugden 1963;Uchupi, Swift, and Ross 1996, 1999; Williams1999; Wilkinson and Drummond 2004).”(4)
However, it seems that this landscape has always found itself in flux due to ever changing climatic conditions. Around 40,000 years ago as the earth slipped further into an ice age, the ocean continued to recede towards the Gulf of Oman, existing at a depth of approximately 100 meters below current levels.(Douglas G. Martinson. 1987)
Figure 2: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -100 meters below current sea levels, circa 40,000 BCE.(Dold. 2016, Douglas G. Martinson. 1987)
Yet the ocean level did not stop there, it seems to have retreated even further. By the height of the last ice age, 20,000 years ago, the ocean had receded to a maximum depth of approximately 140 meters below current sea levels.(Fairbanks, R.G. 1989, Douglas G. Martinson. 1987) When we recreate this retreat using the map I have now produced we can see in figure 3 that it left behind a narrow system of small lakes and rivers that cut through the deep canyon that exists in the eastern portion of the Straits of Hormuz.
Figure 3: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -140 meters below current sea levels, circa 20,000 BCE.(Dold. 2016, Douglas G. Martinson. 1987)
The End Of Paradise
Though this land would have been paradise to our early ancestors, all good things must come to an end. We know this because today the gulf oasis is now covered by salt water. This means that at some point in our not too distant past, this part of the world was no longer inhabitable for humans and animals alike as the ocean began to reclaim it.
The question then becomes, what did this dramatic rise in ocean level look like in this part of the world and how did it impact those who lived in this oasis? Now that I had created a detailed map of this location it became relatively simple to recreate the flooding of the Gulf Oasis. I simply had to trace out each contour line and fill in the outlined space with an image of water. Yet to discover when each meter of water rose and how fast it rose was a lot more difficult. In order to answer this, I had to refer to those who have studied this very concept. One such expert was Dr. Lambeck. He researched, and subsequently published a paper titled, “Shoreline reconstructions for the Persian Gulf since the last glacial maximum." In his research, he took core samples throughout the Persian Gulf and studied its composition, not only looking at what each core sample was composed of but when the ocean reclaimed each area the sample was taken from.(Lambeck. 1996) Below in figure 4, is a summary of Dr. Lambecks findings.
Figure 4: Summary of observational evidence for sea-level change in the Persian Gulf and surrounds(Lambeck. 1996 )
The data that Lambeck acquired at sites 45, 46, 57, and 58 are invaluable. The results of this study reveal to us the depth the ocean was at in this part of the world, as well as the time frame the ocean existed at that depth. It is this data that will help us understand how the ocean reclaimed this part of the world. Though Lambeck was not alone in this field of study. Another renowned scientist also collected data on this very topic. Fairbank's paper titled, “ A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic Sea Level: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation” shows us the history of the Atlantic ocean and its subsequent rise for the last 15,000 years.
In Figure 5 below, I have combined both Fairbank's and Lambeck's work.(Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989) I did this to show how each scientist's work related to one another. It is amazing the uncanny similarity between them, though I would like to point out that site 45 and 46 in Lambeck's data differs slightly to that of Fairbank’s. Lambeck's results for site 45 and 46 follow the same curvature of ocean rise as Fairbank's work does, however, Lambeck's results show that the ocean reclaimed the Persian gulf at these depths approximately 500 years before the time frame Fairbank's data shows.(Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)Though speculation on my part, this could be explained by a larger rebounding of the earth's crust in the Persian Gulf due to the rapid melting of the North American ice sheets, which Lambeck took into consideration when publishing his findings, as opposed to what might have occurred in the Bahamas where Fairbanks collected his data.(Lambeck. 1996) Regardless of the reason, it is fair to say that both parts of the world experienced similar rises in ocean level, thus allowing one to derive an approximate speed and time for each meter of ocean rise in the gulf oasis.
Figure 5: This is a chart that shows the results of both Lambeck's and Fairbank's findings in relation to ocean level and age. (Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
When looking at the data in figures 4 & 5, we see the ocean level existed at a depth of -105 meters below current sea levels approximately 14,300 years ago. In figure 5 it seems to indicate that by 13,000 BP the ocean level had risen to a depth of -101 meters. An average of 250 years for every meter in rise. Not very fast. Though according to both men’s research things started to radically change around 13,000 BP. Therefore I would like to begin the reconstruction of the flooding of the gulf oasis as seen in figure 6 below at a depth of -100 meters which seems to have occurred at approximately 13,000 BP.
Figure 6: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -100 meters below current sea levels, circa 13,000 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Going forward from 13,000 BP to 12,000 BP, according to Fairbanks, the ocean rose approximately 15 meters. Starting from -101 meters to -86 meters below current sea levels. This would mean that the ocean rose an average of 1 meter every 65 years. Using this data we can reconstruct what the gulf oasis looked like 12,000 years ago seen in figure 7 below.
Figure 7: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -86 meters below current sea levels, circa 12,000 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
As you can see the deep canyon that exists in the Straits of Hormuz held this ocean rise at bay, not allowing it to affect the greater gulf oasis. However, over the next 1000 years things radically changed. According to both Fairbank’s and Lambeck’s work, from 12,000 BP to 11,000 BP the ocean rose another 12 meters. Rising from -86 meters to -74 meters below current sea levels, an average of 1 meter every 80 years. It is this rise that I would like to illustrate meter by meter in the following images.
Figure 8: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -85 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,920 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 9: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -84 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,840 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 10: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -83 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,760 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 11: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -82 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,680 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 12: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -81 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,600 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
By -80 meters below current sea level the rising ocean has had little effect on the gulf oasis. It is still contained within the canyon that exists in the eastern portion of the Straits of Hormuz. This can be seen in figures 13 and 14 below.
Figure 13: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -80 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,520 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 14: Gulf Oasis cross section with the ocean at a depth of -80 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,520 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
However, in the next 80 years things begin to take a dramatic turn for the worst. As illustrated in both figure 15 and 16 below you can see that within a 10-15 years span the ocean rises from -80 m to -79.8 meters(½ foot) and floods the first of several large lakes that existed in this area. This influx of saltwater into a freshwater ecosystem would have killed all of the plants and animals within the freshwater ecosystem and caused any land animal that drank from its shores to abandon it as a source of freshwater.
Figure 15: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -79.8 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,510 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 16: Gulf Oasis cross section that depicts the rise of the ocean from -80 m to -78.8 m and the how the rising ocean killed the first of the largest freshwater lake in this part of the ancient world.
In the next 70 years the ocean would have continued to rise to a depth of -79 meters below current sea levels as seen below in figures 17 and 18.
Figure 17: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -79 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,440 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 18: Gulf Oasis cross section with the ocean at a depth of -79 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,440 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
When the ocean reaches -79 meters approximately 11,440 BP and rises another ½ foot to a depth of -78.8 meters, in a 10 to 15 year span the greatest fresh water lake this part of the world knew for more than 50,000 years dies as it is flooded due to the ever rising ocean. If the previous death of the first of these great lakes was not the end to a way of life for all that depended on it, then the catastrophic event illustrated in Figure 19 and 20 below must have solidified the beginning to the end of a way of life our ancestors developed in this part of the world.
Figure 19: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -77.8 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,430 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 20: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -77.8 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,430 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Figure 21: Gulf Oasis cross section with the ocean at a depth of -77.8 meters below current sea levels, circa 11,430 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
Astonishingly, it is this devastating event that I believe Dr. Rose and Dr. Howard-Carter refer to. An event that marked the end to a way of life our early ancestors had developed over the course of 50,000 years, an event that spanned a single person's life and began the forced migration of an ancient culture up and out of the gulf oasis approximately 11,400 years ago.
Though this may not have been the only devastating event these people may have been witness to. Imagine what it would have been like for those ancient peoples who were affected by the death of this ecosystem if we add the science that Dr. McClure, Douglas J. Kennett, James P. Kennett and so many others have published about the Indian monsoon shifting to a northerly direction, making its way over the Gulf Oasis at about the same time this precious freshwater lake dies. A storm that could have easily added another 10 meters of water to this floodplain.
According to the Greenland Ice Core data seen in Figure 22 below(Richard B. Alley. 2000) the temperature at the end of the Younger Dryas, 11,700 years ago, began to rapidly rise. Over a 200-300 year span the global temperature rose approximately 10 degrees celsius.(Richard B. Alley. 2000) The ice age had come to a sudden end and our global climate was drastically changing. This had a profound effect on the Indian monsoon system.
Figure 22: GISP2 Greenland temperatures(Richard B. Alley. 2000)
In a paper titled, "Climate change and human origins in southern Arabia.” Dr. A.G. Parker and Dr. J.I. Rose state, " Marine cores from the Indian Ocean, Gulf of Oman, and the Arabian Sea provide a detailed history of the south-west Indian Ocean monsoon system throughout the Quaternary. Biogeochemical and lithogenic data from Arabian Sea cores spanning the last 350,000 years also support the notion that monsoon winds were sensitive to changing glacial climates. The retreat of ice sheets, the rise in continental albedo (solar radiation reflected off the earth’s surface), and the increase of water surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean triggered spikes in magnitude (Clemens. 1991). Computer simulations have been used to estimate the average wind speed of the south-west monsoon during such phases of intensification. Speeds currently average around 10 m/sec, while increased periods of activity saw wind speeds reaching 15 m/sec. Precipitation would have been 50 % greater than its present value, growing from 5 mm/day to 7.5 mm/day. Northwards-shifting insulation patterns drove the monsoons further into the Arabian Peninsula, with evidence for seasonal storms reaching as far north as Bubiyan Island in the Arabian Gulf (Sarnthein. 1972; Kutzbach. 1981)."(5)
According to the two men, "Data derived from published sources as well as new evidence collected by the authors in the field. Based on a total of 396 absolute dates, present us a composite sum probability curve(Figure 23) to illustrate climatic oscillations over the past 175,000 years, from MIS 6 to present. Peaks in sum probability represent periods of increased wetness, while troughs highlight drier phases. All dates are reported in calendar years BP."(6)
Figure 23: HOPE ENV sum probability curve depicting wet/dry signals throughout Arabia during the upper Pleistocene.
In figure 23 we can see that from 11,700 BP to 11,000 BP the sum probability of Pluvial Proxy Signals rapidly spikes. If this is to represent an increase in wetness as Dr. Rose and Dr. A.G. Parker conclude(A.G. Parker &. J.I. Rose. 2008), then we can see from their work that this narrow period of time is the fastest increase in moisture this part of the world had seen in over 175,000 years.
This conclusion is supported by Dr. Douglas J. Kennett's and Dr. James P. Kennett's research paper titled, Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change. In these mens research paper they concluded that, “The changes in Holocene precipitation and associated shifts of the Sudanian-Sahelian vegetation belt over north Africa (Roberts 1989), the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mesopotamia have been linked to changing intensification of summer monsoons related to northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (Clemens. 1996; COHMAP 1988; Kutzbach 1983; Kutzbach and Guetter 1986; Roberts and Wright 1993; Street-Perrott and Roberts 1983). Holocene fluctuations in the strength of the South Asian monsoon in the Middle East region resulted from differential thermal response of land and ocean surfaces due to orbitally caused (Milankovitch) changes in the strength of the seasonal cycle and solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere (Clemens et al. 1996; Kutzbach and Gallimore 1988; Kutzbach and Guetter 1986). The resulting increase in airflow over Arabia from the Indian Ocean, associated with south-west summer monsoons, led to higher seasonal precipitation (Kutzbach and Guetter 1986) and upwellings near south Arabia that peaked about 9000 BP (Prell 1984). Increased monsoonal strength during the Early Holocene led to the higher annual precipitation as far north as southern Mesopotamia (Kutzbach and Gallimore 1988; Kutzbach and Guetter 1986; Roberts and Wright 1993; Whitney et al. 1983). Conditions further north remained relatively dry. (Kutzbach and Guetter 1986; Roberts and Wright 1993)”(7) We can also find this conclusion supported in Dr. McClure work. McClure has researched the last 100,000 years of climate in this part of the world, stating in his 1984 paper at London University, “The new date for the virtually trackless Rub' al-Khali desert in the Arabian Peninsula showed broad matches with the climate histories of a whole belt of deserts that includes the Simpson in Australia, the Rajasthan in India and the Kalahari and Sahara in Africa. The great Rub' al-Khali desert began to form more than two million years ago, while the lakes were formed just yesterday in geological terms." He speculates, “that the summer monsoon moved to the north twice in recent geological history, most likely creating lakes in what he calls "one-time fill-up incidents. It would rain like hell one monsoon season and then not rain in a particular area for the next 10 or 100 years. The lakes had no links with rivers, above or below ground, or any other source of continuous replenishment, and their bed sediments presented no evidence of regular refilling. Rub' al-Khali lakes "weren't enormous lakes like in East Africa or like Lake Superior." They probably ranged in depth from two to 10 meters (6 to 32 feet), but they extensively covered an area 200 miles by 300 miles. A few of these lakes may have lasted several years, but most existed only a few months to a few years. The monsoon's movement to the north, which is also strongly suggested by the climate histories of the deserts in Africa, India and Australia, may have been due to a slight wobbling of the earth in its orbit around the sun. In a 1981 study, John E. Kutzbach of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Climatic Research argued that such shifts would have resulted in hotter summers in the northern hemisphere, in turn creating a low-pressure corridor through the Arabian Gulf and present-day Iraq which provided a passageway for the inrush of moisture-bearing air from farther south.”(8)
Thus from the extensive scientific data that has been conducted so far on the Earth’s changing climate and its effects on the Indian monsoon system over the last 100,000 years we can postulate that during one of the most extreme periods of global warming, 11,700 BP to 11,000 BP years ago, there is a high degree of probability that one or more of the Indian summer monsoons altered their path and were pulled northward towards the Gulf Oasis, thus heralding the beginning of the Arabian Holocene Sub-pluvial.
If this is the case, and a single Indian Monsoon systems made its way across the Gulf Oasis at around the same time the rising ocean had killed the largest freshwater ecosystem this part of the world had ever known 11,500 years ago, a minimum of 10 meters would have fallen in this part of the world. This is because the same monsoon system in less turbulent times has been recorded to have dumped 10 meters of water or 9,300 mm (366 in) in July 1861 in Cherrapunji, India,(9) This rapid increase in water would have caused the ocean that lay approximately -77 meters below current sea level as seen in figure 24 below, to rise another 10-15 meters over a 4- 6 week period(T.N. Krishnamurti. 2009)
Figure 24: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -77 meters circa 11,400 BP.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
This would have resulted in the ocean level to rise to -64 meters below current levels in a matter of 40 days or less. That would suck!
Figure 25: Gulf Oasis with the ocean at a depth of -64 meters 40 days later.(Dold. 2016, Lambeck. 1996; Fairbanks, R.G. 1989)
In conclusion, by combining the separate research of many eminent scientists, historians, archaeologists, and the first highly detailed reconstruction of the sea floor of the Strait of Hormuz, we can see that there was an oasis that was significant enough to have housed the first humans that migrated out of Africa. An oasis that would have been able to have supported the beginning of agriculture and the birthplace of human civilization. However, with recent scientific evidence, it reveals that two very significant flooding events occurred in this oasis approximately 11,400 years ago, ending any human occupation that may have occurred within one person’s lifetime. The first was the rising of the ocean into this antediluvian plain. According to Lambeck's and Fairbank's research, approximately 11,600 - 11,400 BCE the ocean had risen high enough as to flood and kill the greatest freshwater system this part of the world had ever known, resulting in the loss of 1000’s of ecosystems, and a way of life our ancestors had developed for over 50,000 years. The second significant flooding event that has been shown to have possibly occurred during this time frame came from the first of several cataclysmic storms that travelled from the south. Within a very brief period of time, 40 days or less, the Indian Monsoon would have been pulled north and would have caused the water level in this area of the world to rise at least another 10-15 meters. A storm that would have caused a race of people to become displaced from this land forever.
It is impossible to say with any certainty that these events are reflected in the mythology that originates from this area, but “What If” the stories we have from our ancient past are in fact from those people who experienced a dramatically changing world.
As an artist, the myths that spring from this region of the world are rich with imagery and symbolism. It is through the fantasy world of art that I would like to explore the relationship of these ancient myths to the events that transpired in this region of the world. These works of art are in no way an attempt to say that these myths are attached to the catastrophic events illustrated in this paper, only an attempt to explore the world of "What If!"
(1) Jeffrey I. Rose - 2010 - New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis - Current Anthropology Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 849-883 -The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
(2) Jeffrey I. Rose - 2010 - New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis - Current Anthropology Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 849-883 -The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
(3) Theresa Howard-Carter - 1981 -The Tangible Evidence for the Earliest Dilmun - Journal of Cuneiform Studies - Vol. 33, No. 3/4, pp. 210-223 - The American Schools of Oriental Research
(4) Jeffrey I. Rose - 2010 - New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis - Current Anthropology Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 849-883 -The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
(5) A.G. Parker &. J.I. Rose. 2008 - Climate change and human origins in southern Arabia - Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 38: 25–42
(6) A.G. Parker &. J.I. Rose. 2008 - Climate change and human origins in southern Arabia - Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 38: 25–42
(7) Douglas J. Kennett1 and James P. Kennett. 2006 - Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change - Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology, 1:67–99, Taylor & Francis Group
(8) McClure H. 1984 - Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Rub’al Khali. PhD thesis, London, University of Central London.
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Lambeck. 1996 - "Shoreline reconstructions for the Persian Gulf since the last glacial maximum” - Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University. Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
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T.N. Krishnamurti. 2009 - Indian monsoon - Encyclopedia Britannica - https://www.britannica.com/science/Indian-monsoon
McClure HA. 1976 -Radiocarbon chronology of late Quaternary lakes in the Arabian Desert. Nature263: 755–756
McClure H. 1984 - Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Rub’al Khali. PhD thesis, London, University of Central London.Late Quaternary
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